Auto energy-saving emission reduction has become the driving force behind the development of automotive electronics, with the increasing oil supply shortage and growing environmental pollution, electric vehicles such as electricity-powered vehicles, with its energy-saving and environmental protection advantages of becoming a concern to the industry focus. However, even if the electric car has many advantages, but it is a time can not replace the traditional gas powered model, so the new hybrid vehicle is clean electric vehicle with industrialization and marketization of the most promising models. However, cost, reliability, longevity, more complex environment, the requirements of high-voltage power devices for automotive manufacturers and many other issues facing the many challenges.
Infineon Technologies (China) Limited’s automotive electronics business, senior marketing engineer Cao Yu pointed out: At present, the main challenges of hybrid cars from two aspects: one is the traditional power systems and electric systems of coordination; the other is the need for cost-controlled conditions, to meet the automotive electronics in complex application environments reliability requirements.
Cao Yu: Hybrid cars as a major challenge is the traditional power systems and electrical systems for coordination.
Fairchild, senior manager of global automotive market, Hans-PeterHoenes believes that hybrid vehicles the main design challenges are based on a very low cost to create a very complex and yet highly reliable systems.
“Electric cars can be divided into three categories: hybrid, fuel cell and electric vehicles. Electric car there is a universal problem – battery, batteries due to the existing problems, the future can be the possibility of mass production the largest is the hybrid. than a hybrid engine with conventional technology, an increase in three parts, one vehicle control, 2 battery management, and third is motor control. “Freescale’s automotive electronics engineering manager for China, said Kang Xiao Dun .
Kang Xiao Dun: The battery technology is the key to hybrid cars, batteries account for the cost of the vehicle 1 / 3 of the above.
Hybrid electric vehicle is further divided into light (micro) mixed with full hybrid vehicles, the challenges they face are different.
Light mixed with the different challenges facing the entire mixed
Cao Yu analyzed, micro-mixing system and the entire hybrid system in the system are structurally very different, it is more than the total electrical power system, the percentage of the value of difference is important that the quantitative changes in the structure caused by vehicles. Micro-hybrid system in general to achieve start-stop function, the whole hybrid system requires no engine power vehicles in the case still has some endurance. Because the system greatly increased the coupling degree, full-hybrid system structure is more complex and more challenges in the hp f4809a laptop battery.
Hans-PeterHoenes were analyzed for the mild hybrid vehicles, the chassis (the basic design) is still the traditional automotive design, usually in a normal car on the integration of hybrid characteristics. As the chassis (the basic design) design has been set, the additional needs of all systems must be able to meet the demand. However, this is not always the best technical solution, so far the biggest challenge in this regard is the integration of mechanical and electrical integration. In other words, the minimum space requirements need to design. As for the full use of hybrid cars, the whole design needs to change, not only the powertrain, chassis and even had to move forward and is optimized for mixed. A good design should be designed around the automobile powertrain, while the traditional program is designed to cars, but the engine placed in the “somewhere.” This is a complete change in the concept of design thinking, because drive system has been decided, or at least greatly affect the shape and appearance of the vehicle.
“Design work is facing the biggest challenge is the lack of high-power electric transmission under high pressure (high pressure-driven high-power motors) has extensive experience in automotive engineers. As a result of conditions and the traditional cars are different, so even in the field of industrial drives and experienced Senior consultant, can offer the help is very limited. “Hoenes said. Fairchild not only has a discrete power technology, as well as gate driver IC such as IC. This not only applies to low-voltage, but also covers the full voltage range of up to 1200V. This module integration capability allows customers to receive a fully tested to optimize power level, can solve many problems related to the interaction between the parasitic and device design issues.
Motor Control Challenges
In motor control, Cao Yu pointed out that the main difficulty is the need to achieve auto-level reliability requirements, and needs to take into account the cost of realization of the right. Also need to consider the high-power drive system caused by electromagnetic interference and noise effects. If you are using industrial-grade device although the initial period of no major problems, but as time goes on, accompanied by a device destined to produce failure, vendor will give the brand image and reputation has brought incalculable loss, “so we recommend the use of automotive-grade devices, can effectively guarantee the vehicle’s life cycle system, reliable operation. “he said. “As the world’s leading supplier of power devices, Infineon has a deep system of experience and many experts team, which can better understand the specific needs of customers, even helping customers find those hidden in the system application requirements under the battery.”
Infineon offers the industry’s leading provider of high power density automotive-grade module HP1 (hybridpack1) & HP2 (hybridpack2), with ultra-small size, the most relevant automotive systems of space limitations. HP1 weight 485g (72x140x17mm) 3 half-bridge in-one design, 650V400A maximum drive capability for less than 20-30KW motors. HP2 (106.5×48.5×20.5mm) weight of 1250g, is more directly based on a special water-cooled thermal design in order to meet the 80-100KW Module 650V800A motor applications.
Microchip Automotive Products Group Automotive Marketing Manager, Chan Chung-yan, the view that: “In the hybrid vehicle, the motor control for steering control, and battery cooling and other key subsystems is critical. Brushless DC (BLDC) motors due to small size, controllability and high efficiency The widely used. brushless DC motors are increasingly being used to eliminate the belts and hydraulic systems, to provide additional functionality and improved mileage. magnet costs continued to decline and control of brushless DC motor of the electronic devices needed to continue to reduce the , leading to more and more used cars, power level is also rising. ”
Chan Chung-yan, went on to explain, DC brushless motors are usually controlled with one or more of the rotor position sensor used in conjunction with, because their electrical excitation must be synchronized with the rotor position. For the cost, reliability and mechanical packaging reasons, especially if the motor need to being immersed in a fluid, preferably in the case of sensorless brushless DC motor running – that is, without sensor operation. Sensorless motor lower cost, because it does not require sensors, but the driver is more complex. Sensorless Motor in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery cooling system has excellent performance, this time do not need to start and stop the motor. “Automotive system designers embedded in the face of changing environment, the need to develop a cost-effective and environmentally friendly solution. Low-power micro-controller is an important device to meet the demanding requirements, which can increase the cost of lower reliability of the system in a small package to adapt to a smaller board space, and no external components. In addition, to have the socket, software and peripheral compatibility with micro-controller architecture provides designers with excellent flexibility, enabling them to shorten the development time and reduce costs. Microchip Technology offers a variety of micro-controllers and DSC, for facing the challenges of hybrid demand for automotive electronics designers is the best solution. ”
In the powertrain systems, Cao Yu think the biggest challenge is how to coordinate the motor system and the traditional power system operation, give the user a better driving experience. Improve the efficiency of the whole system mainly from the following aspects: improving motor system efficiency, braking energy feedback rate, reducing the efficiency of the engine at low speed range of operation and so on.
For motor control, Kang Xiaodui Freescale, “said Freescale’s gasoline engine management electronics a global leader. We offer advanced embedded controllers, sensor technology, power management components and power brakes drive, so that the new vehicle more economical, and protect the environment. We’re still the engine control technology introduced into the electric vehicle control and management, and based on PowerArchitecture Freescale processors MPC55/56xx series offers many of the most advanced engine control, vehicle management, electrical drive, battery management solutions. ”
Battery management is facing the biggest challenge
In the (full) hybrid vehicles, the battery is the most expensive, but also the most delicate parts. Although the lithium battery with high power density advantages, but in the development of suitable batteries for hybrid cars, there is still a lot to be done. In this case, the next few years, nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries will still be more and more widely used.
Hans-PeterHoenes pointed out that to achieve the fast charge without damage (damage) batteries, designers need a very precise charge (charge) control technology. Although the micro-controller integrated intelligent programming algorithm is basically a software solution, but Fairchild continued to focus on the hardware. In order to avoid interference with power lines during charging, a good power factor correction solution is necessary, to some extent even a legal norm requirement. The control IC Fairchild has an extensive product portfolio, combined with built-in with a soft-recovery rectifiers (performance of the rectifier diode) and low saturation voltage drop across the IGBT, can provide a complete solution.
In the battery management, Cao Yu Li-ion battery that Infineon has a dynamic balance of Application patents, can reduce the differences between each other, effectively improve battery efficiency and longevity. This patented feature is the battery charged and discharged, or any idle time to implement power balance, very suitable for automotive power applications in such diverse environments and rapid mode switching needs.
“In view of current technology, technology is the hybrid cars and electric cars key. Even a relatively high market appeal hybrid cars, batteries account for the cost of the vehicle’s 1 / 3 or more. But also the weight of , reliability, longevity and many other issues to be resolved. lithium iron phosphate battery technology should be a better solution. However, as regards the above problems still need further improvement. Fuel cells are another technology, its technical maturity, fuels (mostly liquid hydrogen) storage and control issues, we can say can not immediately become a mature, mass-produced products. while pure electric cars, hybrid terms, the battery cost, weight, reliability, life , including the charging issue will be the government, automobile companies are facing a major problem. “Kang Xiao Dun said,” So, the current hybrid vehicles in Europe and the United States and Japan, and has become industrialized, and domestic still in its infancy, there is no formation of industrialization. As the world’s leading automotive semiconductor manufacturers, Freescale is committed to the Chinese domestic automotive electronics contribute to the development. Our key customer support (such as BYD, etc.), including technical exchanges, product pricing and so on. “